The stunting effect of a high CO2 ocean on calcification and
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TitleThe stunting effect of a high CO2 ocean on calcification and development in sea urchin larvae, a synthesis from the tropics to the polesAbstractThe stunting effect of ocean acidification on development of calcifying invertebrate larvae has emerged as a significant effect of global change. We assessed the arm growth response of sea urchin echinoplutei, here used as a proxy of larval calcification, to increased seawater acidity/pCO2 and decreased carbonate mineral saturation in a global synthesis of data from 15 species. Phylogenetic relatedness did not influence the observed patterns. Regardless of habitat or latitude, ocean acidification impedes larval growth with a negative relationship between arm length andincreased acidity/pCO2 and decreased carbonate mineral saturation. In multiple linear regression models incorporating these highly correlated parameters, pCO2 exerted the greatest influence on decreased arm growth in the global dataset and also in the data subsets for polar and subtidal species. Thus, reduced growth appears largely driven by organism hypercapnia. For tropical species, decreased carbonate mineral saturation was most important. No single parameter played a dominant role in arm size reduction in the temperate species. For intertidal species, the models were equivocal. Levels of acidification causing a significant (approx. 10-20+%) reduction in arm growth varied between species. In 13 species, reduction in length of arms and supporting skeletal rods was evident in larvae reared in near-future (pCO2 800+ Î¼atm) conditions, whereas greater acidification (pCO2 1000+ Î¼atm) reduced growth in all species. Although multi-stressor studies are few, when temperature is added to the stressor mix, near-future warming can reduce the negative effect of acidification on larval growth. Broadly speaking, responses of larvae fromacrossworld regions showed similar trends despite disparate phylogeny, environments and ecology. Larval success may be the bottleneck for species success with flow-on effects for sea urchin populations and marine ecosystems. Copyright 2013 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.AcknowledgementsFunding statement Research was supported by grants from the Australian Research Council and the New South Wales Environmental Trust (M.B. and S.D. and Antarctica New Zealand (M.L.). Acknowledgements Thanks to Kennedy Wolfe, Hong Nguyen and Natasha Hardy for assistance with data and figures. The reviewers and editor are thanked for insightful comments on the manuscript. This is contribution 100, Sydney Institute of Marine Science.
1st AuthorByrne, M.AuthorByrne, M.Lamare, M.Winter, D.Dworjanyn, S.Uthicke, S.Year2013JournalPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological SciencesVolume368Number1627DOI10.1098/rstb.2012.0439URLhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/recor.....86777378bd0b9926e1224f99dKeywordscalcificationcarbon dioxidedata setglobal changeglobal warminggrowth responseinvertebratelarvamineraloceanphylogenyrelatednesssaturationseawatersize, carbon dioxidesea watercarbon dioxidesea water, animalbone mineralizationchemistryclimate changedrug effectsgeographygrowth, development and aginglarvaseasea urchinspecies differencestatistical modelbone mineralizationcalcifying larvaechemistrydrug effectechinopluteusglobal changeocean acidificationocean warmingreviewsea urchin, AnimalsCalcification, PhysiologicCarbon DioxideClimate ChangeGeographyLarvaLinear ModelsOceans and SeasSea UrchinsSeawaterSpecies Specificity, calcifying larvaeechinopluteusglobal changeocean acidificationocean warming, rank5Author KeywordsCalcifying larvaeEchinopluteusGlobal changeOcean acidificationOcean warming
TypeArticleCitationByrne, M., Lamare, M., Winter, D., Dworjanyn, S. and Uthicke, S. (2013). The stunting effect of a high CO2 ocean on calcification and development in sea urchin larvae, a synthesis from the tropics to the poles. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 368(1627)
Uthicke, S., The stunting effect of a high CO2 ocean on calcification and , [Byrne2013b]. Antarctica NZ, accessed 26/03/2023, https://adam.antarcticanz.govt.nz/nodes/view/63415, 10.1098/rstb.2012.0439