Anchor ice in polar oceans
Details of Research
TitleAnchor ice in polar oceansAbstractOne feature of high-latitude areas is the formation of ice clusters attached to the beds of rivers, lakes and the sea. This anchor ice, as it is widely known, plays an important role in mobilizing bed sediments, as well as ecological roles as a food source, habitat and potentially fatal environment. Much work has been devoted to fluvial anchor ice in the Northern Hemisphere, yet comparatively little work has described anchor ice in polar marine environments, despite its description by Antarctic expedition scientists over a century ago. In this paper, we review the current understanding of anchor ice formation in polar marine environments. Supercooled water is a necessity for anchor ice to form and frazil adhesion is the most likely common mechanism for initial anchor ice growth. Strong biological zonation has led some authors to suggest that anchor ice does not form to depths of greater than 33 m, yet in Antarctica there appear to be no physical reasons for such a limit given the production of supercooled water to substantial depths associated with ice shelves. Future work should focus on the potential extent of anchor ice production and identify the key oceanographic, glaciological and meteorological conditions conducive to its formation.© The Author(s) 2013.AcknowledgementsThe authors wish to thank the University of Otago Polar Environments Research theme for their early support of this project by promoting collaboration through a seed grant, and the University of Otago Humanities Division for supporting a student bursary. We would also like to thank Tracy Connelly for drafting the diagrams, John B Weller for permission to use his photograph of Seastars and Anchor Ice. Lastly, thanks to Pat Langhorne and Vonda Cummings for their expertise and valuable comments on this manuscript.
1st AuthorMager, S.AuthorMager, S.Smith, I.Kempema, E.Thomson, B.Leonard, G.Year2013JournalProgress in Physical GeographyVolume37Number4Pages468-483DOI10.1177/0309133313479815URLhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/recor.....0bbec3268d29d117214368880Keywordsglaciologymarine environmentmarine sedimentmeteorologyNorthern Hemisphereoceanographypolar regionsea icesedimentation, Antarctica, rank3Author Keywordsanchor icefrazil icemarine sedimentationplatelet icesea icesupercooled water
TypeArticleCitationMager, S., Smith, I., Kempema, E., Thomson, B. and Leonard, G. (2013). Anchor ice in polar oceans. Progress in Physical Geography, 37(4): 468-483
Antarctica NZ (26th Nov 2018). Anchor ice in polar oceans. In Website Antarctica NZ. Retrieved 18th Jan 2021 13:45, from https://adam.antarcticanz.govt.nz/nodes/view/63637