A method for assessing the physical recovery of Antarctic de
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TitleA method for assessing the physical recovery of Antarctic desert pavements following human-induced disturbances: A case study in the Ross Sea region of AntarcticaAbstractWith increasing visitor numbers an understanding of the impacts of human activities in Antarctic terrestrial environments has become important. The objective of this study was to develop a means for assessing recovery of the ground surface desert pavement following physical disturbance. A set of 11 criteria were identified to assess desert pavement recovery. Assessed criteria were: embeddedness of surface clasts; impressions of removed clasts; degree of clast surface weathering; percent overturned clasts; salt on underside of clasts; development of salt coatings; armouring per m2; colour contrast; evidence of subsidence/melt out; accumulation of salt on cut surfaces; and evidence of patterned ground development. Recovery criteria were assigned a severity/extent rating on a scale from zero to four, zero being highly disturbed, and four being undisturbed. A relative perctage recovery for each criteria was calculated for each site by comparison with a nearby undisturbed control area, and an overall Mean Recovery Index (MRI) was assigned to each pavement surface.To test the method, 54 sites in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica were investigated including areas disturbed by: bulldozer scraping for road-fill, contouring for infrastructure, geotechnical investigations, and experimental treading trial sites. Disturbances had occurred at timescales ranging from one week to 50 years prior to assessment. The extent of desert pavement recovery at the sites investigated in this study was higher than anticipated. Fifty of the 54 sites investigated were in an intermediate, or higher, stage of desert pavement recovery, 30 sites were in an advanced stage of recovery, and four sites were indistinguishable from adjacent control sites (MRI = 100 percent). It was found that active surfaces, such as the gravel beach deposits at the Greenpeace World Park Base site at Cape Evans, the aeolian sand deposits at Bull Pass, and the alluvial fan deposits of the Loop Moraine field campsite, recovered relatively quickly, whereas less active sites, such as the bulldozed tracks at Marble Point, and Williams Field to McMurdo Station pipeline site on Ross Island, showed only intermediate recovery 20-30 years after disturbance. The slabby grano-diorite surface material at the former Vanda Station site, meant that the impacts that had occurred were hard to detect following decommissioning of the station and site remediation. Desert pavements disturbed by randomly dispersed footprints, temporary field campsites at the Loop Moraine and VXE6 Pond in the Wright Valley, recovered to be undetectable (MRI = 100 percent) within five years, whereas track formation from repeated trampling, particularly the concentration of larger clasts along the margin of a confined track, persisted for over 15 years (MRI = 82 percent). The recovery assessment method developed in this study has environmental management applications and potential to advance our ability to predict the recovery of desert pavement following human impacts from activities in Antarctica. Copyright 2012 Elsevier Ltd.AcknowledgementsThe authors wish to thank Antarctica New Zealand for logistic support. We also thank Landcare Research for support; particularly the Murray Jessen Memorial Doctoral scholarship. Errol Balks, Margaret Auger, Nathan Cross, and Jana Newman, provided technical assistance and advice. We thank the reviewers for their useful comments which greatly improved the paper.
1st AuthorO'Neill, T. AuthorO'Neill, T. Balks, M.LÃ³pez-Mart\Ìinez, J.McWhirter, J.Year2012JournalJournal of Environmental ManagementVolume112Pages415-428DOI10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.08.008URLhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/recor.....56f60fa3a00b9514f58092e27Keywordssodium chloride, anthropogenic effectdesertdisturbanceenvironmental impact assessmentenvironmental managementeolian depositgeotechnical surveyhuman activitypavementpolar regionroad constructionsaltsurface areaweathering, Antarcticaarticlecolorconcentration (parameters)desertdesert pavementecosystem restorationenvironmental managementhuman activitiesphysical parameterssurface propertyweathering, Antarctic RegionsConservation of Natural ResourcesEcosystemEnvironmental MonitoringHumansOceans and Seas, AntarcticaCape EvansEast AntarcticaMcMurdo Dry ValleysRoss IslandRoss SeaSouthern OceanWright Valley, rank5Author KeywordsAntarcticaDesert pavementHuman impactPolar desertSoil recoverySurface morphology
TypeArticleCitationOÅƒeill, T., Balks, M., LÃ³pez-Mart\Ìinez, J. and McWhirter, J. (2012). A method for assessing the physical recovery of Antarctic desert pavements following human-induced disturbances: A case study in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica. Journal of Environmental Management, 112:415-428
Antarctica NZ (26th Nov 2018). A method for assessing the physical recovery of Antarctic de . In Website Antarctica NZ. Retrieved 20th Jan 2021 20:46, from https://adam.antarcticanz.govt.nz/nodes/view/63706