We will be working with the Korean Programme out of Jang Bogo Station and will also spend time at Cape Hallet and Cape Adare. We will obtain baseline data that will allow us to detect changes in the terrestrial ecosystem that are linked to a changing climate in the future. We will focus on soils, microbes, mosses and lichens, and will be looking in particular for changes in the biological communities along gradients in the physical environment (e.g. water availability). A key focus is the influence of penguin colonies on the microbial and plant communities near each colony due to the inputs of nutrients from penguin guano.