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Penguins by breed

Adelie penguin

  • Pygoscelis adeliae
  • Standing height: 18-24 inches
  • Weight: 8-10 pounds
  • Lives on the Antarctic continent and the surrounding waters within limits of pack ice
  • Lower risk population estimated at 4,931,600 birds
  • This species, along with the emperor penguin, is restricted to Antarctica and the surrounding waters.

Chinstrap penguin

  • Pygoscelis antarctica
  • Standing height: 28-30 inches
  • Weight: 8.5-9.5 pounds
  • Lives south of the Antarctic convergence on islands and on the Antarctic peninsula
  • Lower risk population estimated at 15,000,000 birds
  • The chinstrap penguin is the second-most numerous penguin in the world.
  • This penguin belongs to a group of penguins known as the brush-tailed or stiff-tailed penguins.

Emperor penguin

  • Aptenodytes forsteri
  • Standing height: 36-44 inches
  • Weight: 60-90 pounds
  • Lives within the Antarctic zone, approximately 40 colonies scattered around Antarctica, most on fast ice
  • Lower risk population estimated at 436,200 birds
  • The emperor penguin is the largest of all penguins.
  • This penguin endures the harshest weather of any species on the planet.

Gentoo penguin

  • Pygoscelis papua
  • Standing height: 30-35 inches
  • Weight: 10-14 pounds
  • Lives on sub-Antarctic islands and the Antarctic peninsula
  • Lower risk population estimated at 628,000 birds
  • Belongs to a group of penguins commonly known as brush-tailed penguins, which also include the Adelie and chinstrap penguins.
  • The gentoo is the most timid of the brush-tailed penguins.

King penguin

  • Aptenodytes patagonicus
  • Standing height: 37 inches
  • Weight: 30-45 pounds
  • LIves on sub-Antarctic and Antarctic islands
  • Lower risk population estimated at 3,276,890 birds
  • Second largest of all penguins.
  • Kings are found in their colonies year round because it takes them 15-18 months to raise their single chick.

Rockhopper penguin

  • Eudyptes chrysocome
  • Standing height: 18- 23 inches
  • Weight: 4.5-8 pounds
  • Breeds on rocky islands located in the sub-Antarctic and south temperate regions of the Indian and South Atlantic oceans.
  • All rockhopper subspecies are considered vulnerable. Northern rockhopper: 700,000 adults, Southern rockhopper: 950,000 adults, Eastern rockhopper: 1,664,000 adults
  • The name rockhopper describes the way this species hops around the steep, rocky places where they live for part of the year.

Royal penguin

  • Eudyptes schlegeli
  • Standing height: 26 inches
  • Weight: 12 pounds
  • Breeding is restricted to Macquarie Island off New Zealand and adjacent islets. Wintering range is sub-Antarctic water.
  • Vulnerable population estimated at 1,700,000 birds
  • Only crested penguin with a white face and throat.

Snares Island penguin

  • Eudyptes robustus
  • Standing height: 25 inches
  • Weight: 6-7 pounds
  • Lives in New Zealand, breeds only on Snares Island chain. Vulnerable population estimated at 46,500 birds
  • Only penguin that actually roosts in low trees.

Yellow-eyed penguin

  • Megadyptes antipodes
  • Standing height: 21 inches
  • Weight: 11.5-13 pounds
  • Lives on the southeast coast of New Zealand’s South Island, including Stewart, Campbell and Auckland Islands
  • Vulnerable population estimated at 4,000-7,000 birds. Population has decreased by 40% over the last 40 years.
  • The most reclusive of all penguin species. These penguins seek out sheltered nests completely isolated from their neighbours. If two pairs are within sight of each other, both will experience an unsuccessful breeding season.







Adelie Penguin Census